Optimising diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis infection in community and primary care settings in two urban provinces of Vietnam: a cohort study

This cohort study was implemented in two provinces of Vietnam from May 2019 to September 2020. Participants included household contacts (HHCs), vulnerable community members and healthcare workers (HCWs) recruited at community-based TB screening events or HHC investigations at primary care centres, who were followed up throughout TPT.

We constructed TBI care cascades describing indeterminate and positivity rates to assess feasibility, and initiation and completion rates to assess performance. We fitted mixed-effects logistic and stratified Cox models to identify factors associated with IGRA positivity and loss to follow-up (LTFU).

Among 5837 participants, the indeterminate rate was 0.8%, and 30.7% were IGRA positive. TPT initiation
and completion rates were 63.3% (3HR=61.2% vs 9H=63.6%; p=0.147) and 80.6% (3HR=85.7% vs 9H=80.0%; p=0.522), respectively. Being male (adjusted OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.28 to 1.78; p<0.001), aged 45–59 years (1.30; 1.05 to 1.60; p=0.018) and exhibiting TB-related abnormalities on X-ray (2.23; 1.38 to 3.61; p=0.001) were associated with positive IGRA results. Risk of IGRA positivity was lower in periurban districts (0.55; 0.36 to 0.85; p=0.007), aged <15 years (0.18; 0.13 to 0.26; p<0.001), aged 15–29 years (0.56; 0.42 to 0.75; p<0.001) and HCWs (0.34; 0.24 to 0.48; p<0.001). The 3HR regimen (adjusted HR=3.83; 1.49 to 9.84; p=0.005) and HCWs (1.38; 1.25 to 1.53; p<0.001) showed higher hazards of LTFU.

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